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水源保护考验科学发展观

中国东部严重的污染事件提出了诸多重要问题,如法律规范、地方管制以及大众参与。马军报道。

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2009年2月20日,江苏省盐城市自来水厂原水受酚类化合物污染,市区大面积断水,20万人受到影响。此事件暴露出中国水源地管理存在严重缺陷,需认真反思。

盐城市水源保护的状况并非特例。江苏省环保厅2007年对全省集中式饮用水源地督查发现,各市水源地都存在问题,其中南京市18个饮用水源地中,有13个一、二级保护区存在污染源;无锡市8个饮用水源地中,有7个一、二级保护区存在污染源。

当我们把视角放大到全国,据中国环境监测总站2006年6月资料,环境保护重点城市中,五分之一强的饮用水源地不达标,。饮用水源受到污染,直接威胁到人民的健康甚至生命安全。据国家环境主管部门披露,近年来中国平均每两天发生一起环境突发事故,其中70%是水污染事故。

“耗子药放在锅台上”

盐城市区饮用水主要取自流经城区的蟒蛇河等几条河流,但水源地竟然为大量排污企业包围。早在2003年,当地媒体就曾报道,蟒蛇河水源保护区内及其周围分布的51家工业企业存在污染隐患,因此确定其中11家企业搬迁、关闭或转产。

然而,正如许多地区一样,盐城市水源地保护也陷入边治理、边污染的怪圈,在水源保护区内,盐城一边治理重点企业,一边继续批准新建项目,大量工业废水排入取水口上游的蟒蛇河、新洋港河段。2002年颁行的《中华人民共和国水法》第三十四条明确规定:禁止在饮用水水源保护区内设置排污口。而在盐城,水源保护区不但有排污企业,甚至还不乏高污染的化工企业,包括此番水污染事件锁定的肇事者——盐城市标新化工有限公司。


图片由 Woocool

2007年无锡太湖蓝藻生态污染事件暴发后,国家环保总局和江苏省环保厅要求加大整治力度,保障供水安全,盐城制定了市区饮用水源专项整治方案:保护区上游及其周边至少三分之一重点化工企业应在2007年底前将关闭或搬迁,其他化工企业必须在 2008年底前全部关闭或搬迁。

在部署此次专项行动的会议上,盐城市一位领导将水源地上游频发的化工企业污染事故,称为“时刻威胁市区水源安全的定时炸弹”。他列举了2003年龙冈香料厂发生的原料泄漏事件;2004年、2005年连续两年水源上游水体发生异味事件;2007 年鞍湖农化厂发生的废液外溢事件。

而一年后,盐城市将10家被整治企业的搬迁或关闭期限定后延至2009年底,其中恰恰包括标新化工有限公司。避免恶性水污染事件的机会终于在年复一年的犹豫与拖延间失去。2009年2月20日,标新公司将30吨高浓度含酚钾盐废水下泄到蟒蛇河水源地,造成自来水厂原水挥发酚超标上百倍,20万市民突然陷入断水困境。

直接原因固然是无良企业排放有毒废物,实质则是相关部门执法不严,监管不力,地方政府违法容忍企业在水源地设厂排污。允许高污染、高风险企业直接设在水源地的时候,其结果可想而知,按照盐城当地人形象的说法,是“耗子药放在锅台上早晚会出事。”

为保护饮用水源,全国人大颁布了法规,最高决策层制定了政策,环保部门据此设定了制度关口,开展了专项行动,不可谓不重视;但在实践中,环保部门只是弱势部门,环保政策常常只能“服从于经济建设的大局”。为招商引资,环境影响评价等制度关口可以被突破;为了拉动GDP增长,污染企业可以在整治行动过后“野火烧不尽,春风吹又生”。不难看出,地方政府一次次挣扎于经济增长和水源保护的两难选择之间,而最终总是选择让水源地为经济增长付出代价。这样的价值取向,反映了发展观问题。

宁可毒死,不愿穷死?

苏北地区属于经济欠发达地区,实现跨越式发展、实现经济“撑杆跳”,成了当地一些地区的口号。在迅速拉升GDP的冲动下,化工业等污染大回报高的产业成了当地招商引资的重点。盐城市先后设立了九个化工园区,化工园区遍及盐城每个县市。

一方面苏北密布的化工园区大力招商,另一方面,苏南经济发达的太湖地区因水污染严重加强了环境监管力度,当地一些高污染企业难以生存,急于找到出路,于是双方一拍即合,大量的企业转移到苏北沿海地区。

随着以化工业为龙头的产业集群在苏北展开,2008年,整个苏北地区经济大发展,财政收入增幅达33.9%,比全省增幅高出12.8个百分点,而其中盐城大多数县(市、区)财政收入增幅高达40%以上。

与此同时,过度依赖重化工业的经济增长模式给当地生态环境带来巨大压力,原本清澈的河流成了一条条排污通道。在盐城水污染事件爆发后,人们难免要问,怎么能允许化工企业向自家“水缸”内排毒呢?但在当地,化工园区遍地开花,即使能够避开水源地,又如何逃得过上游园区的排放?如何避得开对下游水源的污染?

对于外界疑虑,当地一位环保局负责人对媒体表示:在温饱和环保面前,人们肯定选择前者。而一位招商办负责人则认为,先污染后治理,已被西方国家反复论证了许多年,已经成了一个发展公理,要发展工业都逃不过这一劫。一些媒体引述当地人士的话,将这样的发展思路总结为“宁可毒死,不愿穷死”。

这样的思路并非苏北专有。一些主张发展优先的人士宣称,今天中国面临的严重环境问题只是某一发展阶段的正常现象,可以在发展中自然得到解决。但污染已直接侵害公众健康甚至生命,我们还要等吗?再则,说“宁可毒死”的人,多数并非升斗小民,常常位高权重,水源污染了,他们可以改喝桶装水,空气污染了,他们可以住到上风上水的小区,蔬菜粮食污染了,可以安排特供。毒水、毒气侵犯最烈的,是本来就生活艰辛的弱势群体。

认识到中国的经济发展和环境保护已经严重失衡,中央政府近年来提出科学发展观,力图实现平衡发展,可持续发展。而“宁可毒死,不愿穷死”的发展观不符合科学发展观。

今天,盐城水污染事件又会激发一轮紧急治理行动:调水冲污、开辟新水源、污染企业搬迁。这是其它城市在水源污染爆发后的通行措施。我们需认识其局限性:调水冲污只是稀释污染物,污染物质被冲到了下游;开辟新水源固然能改善水质,但当更多城市纷纷弃用本地水源时,一方面调水水源难免不堪重负,一方面本地水环境保护可能更加乏人问津;而污染企业搬迁,常常只是一搬了之,其结果常常是污染下乡、污水入海。

要真正让人民喝上干净的水,必须一边做好废污水处理,一边从源头抓起,严防建设项目对自身和下游地区的水源地造成破坏。这需要在环境决策和管理中引入各个利益方的参与,透过广泛的公众参与,充分识别各个项目的环境影响和利弊得失,进而在利益方的博弈和妥协中找到发展与保护的平衡点。今天水污染防治已刻不容缓,为了保护好人民的饮用水源,我们应该开启新型决策机制,这是对各级政府实践科学发展意愿和能力的重大考验。


马军是公众与环境研究中心主任

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Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

两个报道

3月18日,北京晚报报道,实行封闭管理的北京怀柔水库,可以付钱进去游玩;

3月20日,南方都市报报道,广东深圳主要供水水库,同时为香港居民供水,也是深圳最早的景观之一的深圳水库,上游分布着养狗场,废品中转站,渐成规模的鸡舍。

水源安全问题确实刻不容缓。希望类似盐城水危机不再发生。

two reports

On the 18th March Beijing Evening News reported that tourists can pay to go sighseeing at Beijing’s Huairou reservoir, which is usually closed off from the public.
On 20th March Southern Metropolitan Daily reported that the main reservoir that provides drinking water to Guangdong, Shenzhen and also to the residents of Hong Kong, which was a popular sightseeing destination for a long time, now has dog kennels, waste transfer station, henhouses on its upper reaches. The issue of water safety is incredibly urgent. I hope that a water crisis like that in Yancheng won't happen again.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

苏北环境告急!!!

都是政府行为,老百姓是无能为力!
作者说得极是,盐城地区的化工区太多,他们不但污染我们的水源地,还污染我们蓝色的大海,侵占和围垦了苏北沿海大量滨海湿地。
苏北的百姓得癌症的人很多 ,是全国癌症高发区,苏北环境告急!
请环保人士呼吁国内外的媒体参与监督政府!
中国的地方政府现在是无法无天啊!!

The environment in northern Jiangsu province is in a state of emergency

This is all to do with the behaviour of the government, the common people are powerless. The author definitely has the right idea -- there are too many chemical industrial areas in Yancheng, which pollute not only our water sources and our blue sea, but also occupy a large amount of marshland along the coast. The number of people with cancer in Southern Jiangsu is high, it is one of the most prevalent places for cancer in the whole country. Southern Jiangsu is in a state of environmental emergency! This is a call for environmentalists to appeal to media nationally and internationally and ask them to participate in governmental supervision! Chinese local governments behave lawlessly!

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

我们缺水吗?

媒体上总是在讲我国的水资源短缺,其实,中国并不是缺水,而是没有管理好水资源,许多优质水源被商业开发,对于城市自来水源的重视不够。另外,一直以来存在“水信息不对称”的问题,政府称“水好”,民间组织强调“水坏”,双方需要进行沟通。

Do we have water shortage?

The media is always saying that there is water shortage in China. In fact, there is no shortage of water in China.However,we don't manage water resources well. Many high-quality water resources are exploited for commercial purposes. Moreover,we attach not enugh importance to tap water in cities. In addtion, there has been exsiting a problem of the asymmetric water information ,that is to say,our government claims water is in good condition,nevertheless,the non-governmental organization emphasizes water is in bad condition. So both sides need communications.

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

环保部发《关于进一步加强饮用水水源安全保障工作的通知》

  通知指出,近年来,我国突发环境事件不断发生,对群众饮水安全造成严重威胁。2008年,环境保护部直接调度处理的突发环境事件达135起,其中威胁群众饮用水源安全的事件高达46起。

Notice issued by the Ministry of Environmental Protection -- “Strengthening the work of ensuring the safety of drinking water sources”

This notice points out that in China environmental accidents have been occurring constantly in recent years, and have posed a severe threat to the safety of public drinking water. In 2008 there were more than 135 environmental incidents handled directly by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, of which 46 threatened the public drinking water safety. (Translated by Tian Liang).

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

为有源头活水来

与食品相比,水更为重要,每个人天天都必须喝水。毒奶粉事件害惨了数万名孩子,全国一片震惊,这时《食品安全法》被提上桌面。现在,似乎只有期望媒体多曝光水污染事件,大家才能恍然大悟,难道非要用人命来换得那一点点迟到的意识吗?

So that fresh water can come pouring from the source

Water is more important than food -- everyone needs to drink water everyday. The poisoned milk powder incident brought great harm to tens of thousands of children and shocked the whole nation. At that time the subject of ‘Food Safety Law’ was raised. Nowadays, it seems that all we can expect is that cases of water pollution will be more exposed to the public by the media and everyone will suddenly realise how serious this issue is. Can only loss of life cause people to start paying attention?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

用水的公平

城市里的人们可以喝到干净的水,因为城市的自来水设施更为完善,遇到突发事件时政府的反应很快。而在偏远的山区,一旦作为当地水源的河流受到污染,人们也许毫无察觉,好几代人都同样地喝着变坏的水,什么各种耸人的怪病也就不足为奇了。

Fair water

City residents can enjoy the clean water everyday because city water facilities are advanced and the government is quick to react to emergencies. However, in remote mountainous regions people have no idea about when their local water source or river is polluted. Over generations people have drunk the bad water and have naturally contracted a variety of strange diseases.
(Translated by Tian Liang)

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

from wxai‘s word

饮用水的问题由来已久,这到底是环保部门的问题还是政府的问题?一方面,环保法明确地方政府为环境质量负责,当然也为饮用水环境质量负责,但环保部为饮用水质量负什么责,我们太不清楚了,他们在这方面有什么欠缺,我们也太不清楚。另一方面,饮用水的管理多及水利、环保、国土、卫生等部门,部门越多越管不好,环保部门实在是勉为其能。目下管径缩短,是环保部门负责了,可又没有各种资源来负起责。
我建议,应该由中央的环境保护部对饮用水质量负责,出了事部长要下课,或者谁的责任(国土、水利、卫生)谁(部长)下课,这事就会好一点。下课几个地方环保局的局长,不过是厕所里面拿拍子打了两只苍蝇的事,谁关心啊?

from wxai's word

Drinking water is a long-standing problem. Whose responsibility should it be – that of the environmental protection department or that of the government? On one hand, local environmental law clearly states that local government is responsible for the quality of the environment, including the quality of the environment of the drinking water supply of course. However we are not clear the kind of responsibility the environmental protection department has over drinking water and what kinds of shortcomings they have in this respect, we are not clear about either. On the other hand, drinking water management is also related to the water resources, environmental protection, land and public health departments and the more departments involved, the greater the potential for mismanagement. The environmental protection department really has an impossible job. Now the environmental protection department holds the responsibility, but has no resources to carry this out with. I suggest that it should be the Central Division of the Department of Environmental Protection who is responsible for the quality of the drinking water. If there is an incident, the department head should be sacked or whoever holds the responsibility – (from land, water resources, public health departments), the head of that department will be sacked. This will make things a little better. Sacking the heads of some local environmental protection agencies is like swatting a few flies, who really cares?

Default avatar
匿名 | Anonymous

政绩与道德

苏北这样的情况希望各方面积极、妥善处理好,类似的事后处理的成本、影响无法估量。特别是一些地方政府要注意,在提高政绩、引进投资的环节上把握好个种审批,特别是环境评估。不要将一些被发达城市“赶走”的高污染企业,接纳到地方投资,让那些不知情的农民兄弟们整天生活在废气、废水的环境中。因此,还是真诚希望各位从长远出发,保护好农村那一片净土,也好让农民兄弟给各位提供更环保、无毒害的粮食吧!------美丽家园

Political achievement or morals?

I hope this northern Jiangsu incident should be positively dealt with by all parties involved, for the costs and negative effects of salvation afterwards are incalculable. Local governments should especially pay attention to the inspection in raising political achievement and introducing investment, in particular the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). For the local governments, one thing to bear in mind is that don’t welcome those high-polluting enterprises that are banished from the developed cities to invest in the less developed areas; and don’t let our innocent rural brothers live all day in breathing in high-polluted air and drinking high-polluted water. I thus sincerely wish all parties involved had a far-sight view to protect the pure land of the rural areas, and to give opportunity for the rural people to provide us with environmentally friendly and non-toxic food. -- Beautiful Homeland (Mei Li Jia Yuan)
(Translated by Jieping Hu)